Robert Ley led the German Labour Front (DAF) where he pioneered the Strength through Joy (KdF) programme and its most ambitious project, the "people's car", the Volkswagen, originally a project undertaken at Hitler's request by the car-maker Ferdinand Porsche. When the German car industry was unable to meet Hitler's demand that the Volkswagen be sold at 1,000 Reichsmarks or less, the project was taken over by DAF, which brought Ley's old socialist tendencies back into prominence. The party, he said, had taken over where private industry had failed, because of the "short-sightedness, malevolence, profiteering and stupidity" of the business class. Now working for DAF, Porsche built a new Volkswagen factory at Fallersleben, at a huge cost, which was partly met by raiding DAF's accumulated assets and misappropriating the dues paid by DAF members. The Volkswagen car was sold to German workers on an installment plan, and the first models appeared in February 1939. The outbreak of war, however, meant that none of the 340,000 workers who paid for a car ever received one.